To refine your search, use only the most unique words, e.g. IPO will return JF articles that study IPOs. You can exclude terms by using the minus operator directly before a word you want to exclude, e.g. IPO -hot. This will return all IPO articles except those that use the word "hot". Searches in quotations will only return an exact match, so a search for “IPO pricing” will not find articles that have the alternative string, IPO mispricing.
You can enter single terms or phrases into the search box. A Single Term is a single word such as "test" or "hello". A phrase is a group of words surrounded by inverted commas such as "hello again".
The single character wildcard search looks for terms that match that with the single character replaced. For example, to search for "text" or "test" you can use the search:
Multiple character wildcard searches looks for 0 or more characters. For example, to search for test, tests or tester, you can use the search:
You can also use the wildcard searches in the middle of a term.
Note: You cannot use a * or ? symbol as the first character of a search.
You can also do fuzzy searches using the ~ symbol.
For example to search for a term similar in spelling to "roam" use the fuzzy search:
This search will find terms like foam and roams.
You can also type standard Boolean operators into the search box, e.g. AND, OR, NOT (Note: Boolean operators must be ALL CAPS).
To search for documents that contain either "economic downturn" or just "downturn" use the query:
"economic downturn " OR downturn
The AND operator matches documents where both terms exist anywhere in the text of a single document.
To search for documents that contain "economic downturn" and "financial downturn" use the query:
"economic downturn" AND "financial downturn"
The NOT operator excludes documents that contain the term after NOT.
To search for documents that contain "economic downturn" but not "gamble" use the query:
"economic downturn" NOT "gamble"