The Cross‐Section of Expected Stock Returns

  • Author(s): EUGENE F. FAMA, KENNETH R. FRENCH
  • Published: Apr 30, 2012
  • Pages: 427-465
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6261.1992.tb04398.x

ABSTRACT

Two easily measured variables, size and book‐to‐market equity, combine to capture the cross‐sectional variation in average stock returns associated with market β, size, leverage, book‐to‐market equity, and earnings‐price ratios. Moreover, when the tests allow for variation in β that is unrelated to size, the relation between market β and average return is flat, even when β is the only explanatory variable.

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