Trading Costs and Returns for U.S. Equities: Estimating Effective Costs from Daily Data

  • Author(s): JOEL HASBROUCK
  • Published: May 20, 2009
  • Pages: 1445-1477
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6261.2009.01469.x


The effective cost of trading is usually estimated from transaction‐level data. This study proposes a Gibbs estimate that is based on daily closing prices. In a validation sample, the daily Gibbs estimate achieves a correlation of 0.965 with the transaction‐level estimate. When the Gibbs estimates are incorporated into asset pricing specifications over a long historical sample (1926 to 2006), the results suggest that effective cost (as a characteristic) is positively related to stock returns. The relation is strongest in January, but it appears to be distinct from size effects.

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